Reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include a variety of molecules, starting from superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide through singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide. These ROS molecules are produced both in normal and in disease conditions.
Superoxide can be detected by OxyBURST Green H2DCFDA or OxyBURST Green H2HFF BSA. These dyes operate in a similar manner to the hydrogen peroxide sensitive dyes Carboxy-H2DCFDA and CMH2DCFDA by increase in fluorescence when superoxide is present.
Similarly dihydrorhodmaine 123 is oxidized preferentially by hydrogen peroxide, then the free rhodamine 123 signal can be detected as it fluoresces upon binding to mitochondrial membranes. For more information about rhodamine 123 go to Mitochondrail Membrane Potential section.
Nitric oxide is produced during the process of apoptosis from L-arginine by the action of nitric oxide synthase. This form of ROS may be detected by loading cells with fluoroscein analog DAF-FM, which fluorescence increases upon binding to nitric oxide.